Saturday, September 29, 2012

Bone Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

Bone Cancer Diagnosis


The diagnosis of bone cancer could be established by clinical background physical examination of the person who is being affected by bone cancer, but in addition must do a little tests like:

1. Blood tests are done to look for the level of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme, this is a substance which are released in higher amounts as in comparison to the normal individuals with bone tumors and kids growing up.

2. X-ray scans must be also done to see the shape and characteristics in the bones affected by the cancer.

3. CT scans should be also carried out to ensure one can take pictures of bone structures and ascertain the extent of disease.

4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), that allow to see and verify the finer cuts of bones and detect where and what sorts of tumors have affected the bones inside the body of a patient.

5. Biopsy is completed to analyze a sample of bone tissue and see the presence of cancer cells. It is also necessary for additional testing to determine if the cancer has spread with organs or arises from them, i.e. whether or not the bone cancer is primary or secondary.

Bone Cancer Treatment


The treatment of bone cancer must be accomplished by several specialists, oncologists, internists and psychologists as well as the techniques used and also the likelihood of recovery be determined by the type, location and progress of bone tumor or bone cancer location and general condition of the individual.

1. In general, surgery is completed to eliminate the tumor as well as a strip of healthy tissue and nearby lymph nodes or nodules. Instead they put metal plates or bone grafts to exchange the removed tissue to ensure that the tumor will not spread to the other part from the bones and body.

2. Radiation therapy should be also applied so that you can eliminate remaining cancer cells also to reduce the sized tumors. Radiation could be external, whether it is directed at the tumor from your source away from body. It can even be internal when radioactive materials they fit into the body at the cancer cells.

3. Chemotherapy will be of very good use, the drugs employed to destroy cancer cells. It might be administered by way of pills, injections or intravenously with a catheter. This procedure allows the drugs to get in the bloodstream and destroy cancer cells, just about all risks it can effect some healthy cells and its particular application has negative effects in most patients, including nausea and vomiting.

4. Another technique is myeloablative therapy with stem cell support, this therapy destroys the bone marrow that is replaced with stem cells from the matched donor and therefore are able to become other sorts of healthy cells.

5. In extreme cases when the bone cancer has became severe the sufferer may require an amputation, in the event the cancer is inside legs or arms. The recovery of the individual requires prolonged physiotherapy and rehabilitation to bring back damaged bone movement.

It is also essential for people that they ought to have a appropriate diet that includes foods abundant in protein, calcium, zinc and vitamins A, B6 and C. The prognosis of bone cancer depends on various factors

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Precautions After Bone Cancer Treatment

Precautions After Bone Cancer Treatment

For the people who are suffering from bone cancer whether it be secondary or primary bone cancer, the cancer could be destroyed or removed by various and different types of treatments. The completion of treatment may be very exciting and also stressful. The fears within the mind of your companion may take sometime for lessening the impact and turnoil that they have suffered with. However, the cancer survivors can surely deal with this uncertainty. Cancer might not be destroyed completely. However, regular treatments may be obtained with radiation therapy and chemotherapy which assists in curbing or containing the sickness to its most favorable critical rate. Living with cancer may be very stressful and difficult. Given listed here are the things that has to be done as soon as the treatment of cancer:

Follow up care

After treatments is over you ought to make sure that the patients have been in regular connection with their doctors as the doctor will still need to watch the individual closely. It is important that you should go for the follow-up appointments regularly without skip up. During these visits, questions is going to be asked from the doctors regarding any issues that are experienced. Lab tests and scans are often done for noticing the signs and signs and symptoms of treated cancer that will show up. There are many unwanted side effects of bone cancer treatment. Some of these problems or negative effects associated with bone cancer treatment takes a few weeks, while many last for months. Some lasts throughout their lives. This is the time, each time a patient must meet with the cancer care team concerning the problems or changes which are noticed. If extensive bone cancer surgical treatment is performed, physiotherapy and rehabilitation turns out to be an integral part of helping someone in regaining the independence and mobility. Keeping a health insurance coverage is very essential for an individual. A lot of price is involved within the doctor visits and tests.

Seeing a brand new doctor

At a certain point of time following your  bone cancer cancer treatment and diagnosis, an individual may find himself seeing a fresh doctor. This doctor will not be aware of the history. It is important that all the details have to be given to the newest doctor in regards to the diagnosis and treatment. One must make sure that the information should come handy there should be no hiding associated with a facts since it may prove fatal for your life:

The various types of reports that you ought to submit while seeing a whole new doctor, they are:

1. A copy from the surgeries or biopsies that are already performed on the sufferer during the bone cancer treatment.

2. If an individual had undergone any sort of surgery within the past whether linked to cancer or another ailment, the person must have a copy in the operative report.

3. If someone had undergone a radiation therapy treatment, a duplicate of treatment summary is quite necessary.

4. If an individual is inside hospital, he must possess a copy in the discharge summary that is certainly prepared if the patients are sent home.

5. If an individual had undergone a chemotherapy treatment, a directory of drug doses and drugs should be carried.

6. A copy with the imaging studies and x-rays is a must.

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Friday, November 25, 2011

Bone Cancer Treatment Side Effects

Bone Cancer Treatment Side Effects



What are the side effects of treatment for bone cancer?

Unfortunately, there are risks and side effects with each of bone cancer treatment options for bone cancer. The main risks associated with bone cancer surgery are infection, recurrence of cancer and damage to sorrounding tiuses. To remove all the cancer and reduce the risk of recurrence, some surrounding normal tissue should also be removed. Depending on the location of cancer, this may require removal of portions of bones, muscles, nerves or blood vessels. This can cause weakness, numbness, and the risk of fracture of the remaining bone. You may be referred to a specialist in rehabilitation of physical and occupational therapy after surgery to try to improve strength and function.

Chemotherapy uses drugs to try and kill powerful cancerous cells. Unfortunately, some normal cells are also killed in the process. The drugs are designed to kill rapidly dividing overrgrowing cells. Normal cells that are often effected include hair, blood-forming cells and cells lining the digestive system. Side effects include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, infection, and fatigue. Fortunately, these side effects usually disappear after chemotherapy. Good nutrition is important for your body to fight cancer. You may be referred to a nutritionist to help with this, especially if expeiencing nausea and loss of appetite.

The main side effects of radiotherapy include fatigue, loss pf appetite, and damage to the surrounding skin and soft tissues. After radiation therapy there is an also increase in the risk of wound problems after surgery affecting the same area.

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Bone Cancer Treatment Options

Bone Cancer Treatment Options



Bone cancer treatment options depend on the type, size, location and stage of cancer as well as the age and general health of the person. Often, surgery is the primary treatment option. Although sometimes it requires the amputation of a limb, preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy has made possible in many cases perform limb-sparing surgery. When appropriate, surgeons avoid amputation by removing only the cancerous bone and replacing it with an artificial device called a prosthesis.

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also be used alone or in combination.

Surgery

When surgery is resorted it is against bone metastases which is to relieve symptoms rather than cure. The bones become weak, resulting in fractures that can not heal at all. But can use a metal rod to hold the bone and prevent breaks. Or, if the bone has been fractured, surgery can stabilize it and relieve the pain. If surgery is not an option due to health status or for some other reason, a cast or splint may help reduce the pain to not have to stay in bed.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Usually the drugs are given through the mouth or veins. Once the drugs enter the bloodstream and reach throughout the body. Chemotherapy is used as primary treatment option for many types of metastatic cancers. In many cases, chemotherapy can shrink tumors. Chemotherapy drugs kill cancer cells but also damage some normal cells, which can cause some side effects. Immunotherapy: These methods help the patient's own immune system to fight cancer. There are several types of immunotherapy used to treat patients with bone metastases. These include cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and tumor vaccines. Some of these have been using for some time, but others are still experimental. Radio-pharmaceuticals are a group of drugs that have radioactive elements. They are injected through a vein and settle in parts of bone that contain cancer. These drugs kill cancer cells and relieve some of the pain caused by bone metastases. Only used for cancer that has spread from one location to the bones. The main side effect of this treatment is low count of blood cells (mainly white blood cells and platelets). This may increase the risk of infection or bleeding. They can also cause a side effect known as "flare reaction" in which the pain is worse for a short period of time before relief. Bisphosphonates: These medications are used for the treatment of weakened bones (osteoporosis). They are also used to treat patients whose cancers have spread to your bones. Bisphosphonates can help with cancer that spread to the bone in several ways. They can:

Reduce bone pain.
Retard bone damage caused by cancer.
Reduce high levels of calcium in the blood.
Reduce the risk of fractures.

Radiation Therapy 

This treatment uses high energy X-rays to destroy cancer cells or slow their growth. Radiation treatment can be used to treat primary cancers have not spread far from the place where they originated. If a cancer has spread to bone, radiation can be used to relieve symptoms. If the bone is treated before it becomes too weak, radiation therapy may help prevent a subsequent fracture. External radiation therapy against bone metastases is given once in a great deal, or in small quantities for five to ten treatments. Each treatment lasts only a few minutes. This method is a good alternative if only one or two metastases that produce symptoms.

for more information on bone cancer do visit again. 

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Saturday, June 25, 2011

Types of Primary & Secondary Bone Cancer

Types of Primary and Secondary Bone Cancer


Bone cancer is formed due to the problem within the bone cells which leads to the uncontrolled cell division.  There are large number people who are diagnosed with bone cancer every year around the globe. There are two types of bone cancer primary and secondary. Primary bone cancer is formed due to the formation of the tumor in the bone cells which is most common in children and adolescents. Whereas the secondary bone cancer is caused by the metastasis of the cancer cells from the other part of the body. There are various types of tumors that occur in the form malignant primary bone tumor they are Osteosarcoma, Ewing Sarcoma, Chandrosarcoma, Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma, and chordoma which are cancerous in nature.

Osteosarcoma: osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of primary bone tumor which is malignant in nature and it affects the people who are in the age range of 10 to 25 years. Its chances of affecting the adults reduce with an increase in the age. Osteosarcoma mainly affects the long bones of the arms and legs, Bones around knees and elbows and bones around the shoulder region. It is very aggressive and it cancer proceed to the lungs to the metastasis bone cancer cells. The survival for Osteosarcoma is around 60% - 70%.

Ewing sarcoma: Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary bone tumor which affects mainly children in the age range of 4 years to 15 years. Ewing sarcoma affects the central part of the long bones of arms and legs. Usually the survival rate for the Ewing sarcoma is around 60% - 70% but the survival rate decreases if it causes a secondary bone cancer in the other parts of the body.

Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is the second most comer type of primary bone cancer that comprises of the 30% of the malignant bone tumor cases. This tumor occurs in cartilage or soft bones. It has characteristics spreading at a very fast rate or it will have a relatively very slow growth. It mainly affects the people who are in the age group of more than 40 years. Men are affected more as compared to women with Chondrosarcoma and it commonly affects the bone of the pelvis region or the bones of the hips. The survival rate for fast growing Chondrosarcoma is around 35% and the survival rate for the slow growing Chondrosarcoma is around 90%.

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH): Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is that primary bone cancer that affects the soft tissues such as muscles, ligaments, tendons and fats. It affects the people in the group of more than 45 years. Females are most affected than the males with this type of bone cancer. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma has a wide range and it is very severe it also has a very low survival rate of around 35% - 65% only.

Fibrosarcoma: Fibrosarcoma cases are not seen very commonly it is one of the rare primary bone cancers that affect the people in the age group of around 35 years to 50 years. It is more common in males than in females. Fibrosarcoma causes problems in the areas around the knee region basically the soft tissues around the knees.

Chordoma: Chordoma is the rarest type of the malignant primary bone tumors that affects the extremities of the spinal cord. It is more common in males as compare to the females. Chordoma has a survival rate of around 50%.

There are various types of benign primary bone tumors which are non cancerous in nature. This of benign bone tumors are osteoma, osteoblastoma, osteochondroma, enchondroma, chondromyxoid fibroma, aneurysmal bone cyst, unicameral bone cyst, and tumor cells giants.

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Tuesday, June 1, 2010

Bone Marrow Cancer Symptoms

Bone Marrow Cancer Symptoms

Bone marrow cancer occurs in the bone marrow which is present in the long bones, it usually occurs in long bone shafts. The initiation symptoms of bone marrow cancer usually differs from individual to individual. the most common bone marrow cancer symptoms that are shown by the patients are, loss of appetite, fever, weight loss and fatigue. the signs and the symptoms of the bone marrow cancer do not show-up it is known to the patients only after it is fully developed.

There are other bone marrow cancer symptoms that are shown by the patients are:
1. Unexplained swelling in the long bones near the joint.
2. Occurrence of lump on the bone
3. fracture due to slight injury
4. RBC counts are reduced

Symptoms may vary depending on the location and size of the cancer. These symptoms do not necessarily indicate cancer. A doctor can only identify whether or not a patient is suffering from bone marrow cancer.

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Saturday, May 22, 2010

Bone Marrow Cancer

Bone Marrow Cancer


What is Bone Marrow?
The soft and spongy tissues which are present in bones of an individual are called Bone Marrow. If there is no bone marrow in the bones then there will be no formation of the red blood cells because the bone marrow contains stem cells which are precursor to the red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and other important blood components.

What is a Bone Marrow Cancer?
When there is formation of the cancer in the bone marrow of the bones which forms blood cells hence it is called, it is known as the bone marrow cancer.

Types of Bone Marrow Cancer?
There are two types of bone marrow cancer primary and secondary. Primary bone marrow cancer starts in the cells that forms blood. The three types of primary bone marrow cancer:
1. Leukemia.
2. Lymphoma.
3. Multiple Myeloma.

Secondary bone marrow cancer are formed due to the cancer spreading from the other parts of the body and coming to the bones and infecting them. These cancers may arise from lungs, breast, prostate, etc.

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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Bone Cancer Diagnosis

Bone Cancer Diagnosis


When a patient is confident that he is showing bone cancer symptoms he should see a doctor as soon as possible. Doctor firstly will undertake the physical examination of the patient. During the course of the physical examination the doctor checks the body of the patient to ensure that whether there is any sign shoeing of tumor or lump after the physical examination the medical history and family's medical history is sought.The medical history of the patient helps the doctor to understand the medical and disease background of the individual. If the doctor has doubt about the symptoms to be the symptoms of the bone cancer he will recommend the patient to undergo number of tests for the examination of bones.

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Friday, February 19, 2010

Bone Cancer Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis

Bone Cancer Causes, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis



Bone Cancer

The occurrence of the Bone Cancer is relatively rare it occurs only when some cancerous cells occurs in the bone. Normally the bones undergo the mitosis and suddenly the process of cell division increases rapidly leading to formation of mass of the abnormal cells which forms a lump known as the tumor. The tumor which has occurred in bone can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are non-cancerous and malignant tumors are cancerous, so malignant tumors are called as cancers which an be either primary or secondary.

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Sunday, February 7, 2010

Secondary Bone Cancer Diagnosis

Secondary Bone Cancer Diagnosis


Diagnostic Tests for Secondary Bone Cancer

Diagnosis of any type of cancer is very tedious process and has a lot of test to ascertain that a person is suffering fro bone cancer. For the diagnosis of secondary bone cancer the first test which is carried out on the patient is blood-test which is used to check the blood calcium level of the suspected patients. X - Rays of chest and the bones are conducted to check whether there is any kind abnormality in the chest or the bone of the individual. These X -rays are not that much result oriented.

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Secondary Bone Cancer Symptoms

Secondary Bone Cancer Symptoms



Symptoms of Secondary Bone Cancer

When a person is suffering from the secondary bone cancer the bones are affected in a great way and they become so weak that might get fractured leading to pathological fractures due to some minor accidents. The most common symptoms of the secondary bone cancer is a pain. The pain will be sometimes acute and sometimes a low grade pain but the aching in the bone will persist. If the pain is persistent for more 10 - 15 days one should go for a checkup with the doctor. The bone where the secondary bone cancer has affected may swollen up leading to the tenderness in the area.

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Saturday, February 6, 2010

Secondary Bone Cancer

Secondary Bone Cancer


What is Secondary Bone Cancer?

When a Bone Cancer starts first in the bone, it is called Primary Bone Cancer. If the person has a bone cancer because of the cancer due the cancer in other parts of the body secondary bone cancer develops. When a cancer i.e malignant tumor has infected some part of the body and if it develops fully, then after some time some parts from the cancerous mass breaks away and travels to the other parts of the body. If it travels to the bone and causes the another cancer in the bone, then type of cancer is called Secondary Bone Cancer.

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Cancer Deaths

Cancer Deaths


February 4 is a World Cancer Day. Cancer is a one most the most dreaded disease after AIDS but is has claimed much more lives than any other disease. every year nearly 12 million people are diagnosed with the killer disease and out of which 40% can avert cancer just by taking protection against the cancer and by changing their daily lifestyle.

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Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Bone Cancer Diagnosis Tests

Bone Cancer Diagnosis Tests


Types of tests for Bone Cancer Diagnosis
A person suffering from Bone Cancer may have to go through different tests to certify that he is suffering from a bone cancer. There are two types of tests that are more important for the diagnosis of bone cancer 1) Imaging and 2) Biopsy.

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Tuesday, February 2, 2010

Bone Cancer Risk Factors

Bone Cancer Risk Factors




Risk factors are those factors which increases the chances of getting affecting with the disease, it is also same for the cancer. There are different types of cancers and they have different risk factors. for example, chewing tobacco is a risk factor for oesophageal cancer, exposing the skin to the sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, Smoking is a risk factor for wide range of cancers, etc. There may be several risk factors associated with a disease or there may be no risk factors associated with a disease. Several risk factors does not mean that the person is bound to contract the disease or no risk factors does not gaurantee that the person will be free contracting any disease. Normaly, Bone cancer does not have any risk factors but there are number of people who get affected by the Bone Cancer without having risk factor for the disease. 

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Bone Cancer Chemotherapy Treatment

Bone Cancer Chemotherapy Treatment


Chemotherapy Treatment for Bone Cancer:

Bone Cancer is one of the common types of cancer which affects the people and there are different ways of treatment for the Bone Cancer. One such method of Bone Cancer Treatment is Chemotherapy. In Chemotherapy a drug is administrated to the patients for killing the cancerous cells in the body. The drugs can be administrated to patient in various ways such as by the use of pills, catheter or through injection. When the drug is administrated in enters the blood stream and travels throughout the body and destroys the most of the cancerous cells in the body. but in the process of killing the cancerous cells it also kills some healthy cells of the body. There are some common drugs which are used in the process of chemotherapy such as methotrexate with calcium leucovorin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide and etoposide can also be used for this purpose

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Monday, February 1, 2010

Bone Cancer Diagnosis

Bone Cancer Diagnosis


How is Bone Cancer Diagnosed?

Bone Cancer is a disease which shows number of symptoms which may differ from person to person. Bone Cancer Diagnosis involves a number test such as patient’s symptoms, medical history, physical examination, imaging and blood tests are required to confirm that the patient is suffering from Bone Cancer. However, in some cases where this test do suggest a suspicion of the bone cancer then doctor is bound to test the sample tissue under a microscope (known as biopsy).

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Friday, January 29, 2010

Symptoms of Bone Cancer

Symptoms of Bone Cancer


The Bone Cancer symptoms may vary from person to person depending on the location in the body and the size of the tumor(Benign or Malignant) in the bone. All types of bone cancer are painful. The tumors which have formed near the joints of the bone may cause swelling near the joints. Bone cancer can also interfere with the normal movements of a person and may weaken the tissues that causes fractures of the bone. One can also experience some other problems which are common they are general weakness, fatigue, anemia, fever and weight loss.

There may be some symptoms of bone cancer that may have been left out, if so, then please let us know.

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Thursday, January 21, 2010

Bone Cancer Osteosarcoma

Bone Cancer Osteosarcoma


An osteosarcoma is the most common type of the types of the bone cancer. It mainly affects children, adolescents and young adults and more males than women. Osteosarcoma more commonly occurs in the long bones of the body of a person,it occurs in the knee bone i.e. tibia and femur and not so common in fibula, it also occurs in the arm bone i.e. upper arm bone humerus. It may also occur in other bones also.

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Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Bone Cancer Treatment

Bone Cancer Treatment


Treatment for the disease such as Bone Cancer is not a simple process, it involves a number of tests which are required for the proper diagnostic of the disease. The Number of tests preferred for the detection because it is not possible to detect the exact location, size and the stage of the tumor with a single test.

Bone Cancer Treatment:

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Bone Cancer Symptoms

Bone Cancer Symptoms


Bone Cancer is a very dreaded disease which shows its symptoms after its onset and it is very difficult to figure out for the person that he/she is suffering from Bone Cancer but there are some common symptoms which may help the individual to identify that the person is suffering from the Bone Cancer.

Bone Cancer Symptoms:

Bone Cancer Symptoms can vary depending on location and the size of the tumor, but all the tumors are painful. The pain in the affected part increases with the increasing stages. Bone cancer may interfere with the movement of the normal tissues which are weakened and may lead to even fractures in the bone. Other symptoms which are most common are in the patients weakness, fatigue, anemia, weight loss and fever.

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Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Bone Cancer Causes

Bone Cancer Causes


The general information about the Bone Cancer:

What is a Bone Cancer?
Bone Cancer is a primary tumor which is relatively rare in comparison to that of the secondary tumors or metastatic tumors.


What are the Causes of the Bone Cancer?
Bone Tumors can be Benign ( non-cancerous ) and malignant ( cancerous ). Out of both benign tumors are the most common tumors.Both tumors can grow and they compress the healthy bones which are reabsorbed and replaced by the by the abnormal tissue which are the tumors. The Bone Cancer which spreads to the same bone are called as the Primary Bone Cancer and the bone cancer which spreads to the other bone are called as the Secondary Bone Cancer or Bone Cancer Metastasis.

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Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Bone Cancer Metastasis

Bone Cancer Metastasis

An estimated 60% to 84% of patients with cancer develop bone metastasis. Of these 70% experience pain syndrome which is difficult to manage, of which 50% die without adequate pain relief with a poor quality of life. It is therefore necessary to have accessible and effective medications for the management of this condition. One of the most common pain syndromes in patients with advanced cancer is bone metastasis. This is difficult to manage and control in clinical practice. Currently, scientific advances in cancer detection and treatment have prolonged life expectancy in patients. Unlike the case with the phenomenon of bone pain in cancer, where current treatment strategies are not significantly effective. Most palliative treatment of bone pain are based on clinical studies on pain management in patients or in experimental models is not well designed this could explain why the drugs used are partially effective. Today, one of the main obstacles in developing new, safe treatments to control bone pain is the absence of basic science knowledge in the physiology of bone pain.



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